The 27-year-old returns for his national side after missing out on selection for the 2019 Copa America through injury.
Neymar ruptured ligaments in his ankle in a pre-tournament friendly against Qatar on June 5 and has not featured for club or country since, but Brazil coped well in his absence as they lifted the trophy on home soil.
PSG sporting director Leonardo revealed on Thursday the forward's injury has "completely healed", however, and a return to action appears imminent, even if speculation over his future persists amid links to Real Madrid and former club Barcelona.
Convocação da #SeleçãoBrasileira!
— CBF Futebol (@CBF_Futebol) August 16, 2019
Neymar is joined in Tite's 23-man squad by uncapped Real Madrid winger Vinicius Junior, who was overlooked for Copa America selection by Tite due to an ankle injury, while Flamengo's Bruno Henrique is in line to make his senior debut.
There is no place for injured Liverpool goalkeeper Alisson, with Ivan being called up to provide cover for Ederson and Weverton.
Santos left-back Jorge is also included for the games with Colombia on September 6 and Peru on September 10, as is Udinese's Samir, while Madrid defender Marcelo is among the absentees.
Brazil squad in full:
Ederson (Manchester City), Ivan (Ponte Preta), Weverton (Palmeiras); Dani Alves (Sao Paulo), Fagner (Corinthians), Jorge (Santos), Marquinhos (Paris Saint-Germain), Eder Militao (Real Madrid), Thiago Silva (Paris Saint-Germain), Samir (Udinese), Alex Sandro (Juventus); Allan (Napoli), Arthur (Barcelona), Casemiro (Real Madrid), Fabinho (Liverpool), Lucas Paqueta (AC Milan), Philippe Coutinho (Barcelona); Roberto Firmino (Liverpool), Bruno Henrique (Flamengo), David Neres (Ajax), Neymar (Paris Saint-Germain), Richarlison (Everton), Vinicius Junior (Real Madrid).
Photo Getty Images. Caption: Brazil forward Neymar