The singer beat competition from rapper Fredo and indie songwriter Arlo Parks to reach number one with her sumptuous, soulful record Not My Muse.
Earlier this week, she received a a Golden Globe nomination for Hear My Voice, which features in the Aaron Sorkin film The Trial Of The Chicago 7.
"This has done the world of good for me," said the Brighton-based singer.
"It means a lot for this music to get heard in this way. I can't wait to make more and hopefully I'll see you at all the shows."
Born in LA but raised in Essex and Brighton, Celeste's career has been on an upward trajectory since she won the BBC Sound of 2020 last January.
The following month, she wowed the Brits with a stripped-back performance of her signature song, Strange, echoing Adele's career-changing rendition of Someone Like You in 2011.
She was later picked to soundtrack the 2020 John Lewis Christmas advert. This weekend, she will sing the lullaby Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star in a Super Bowl ad for Inspiration4, an all-civilian charity space mission.
The song will be released as a single immediately afterwards.
While fans clamoured for her album, the 26-year-old held fire, using the unusual circumstances of 2020 to refine her music.
"Being in solitude helped me to get back in touch with my thoughts and feelings," she told the BBC last month.
"I think, in the process of doing that, I found my true voice again and felt comfortable to let that be heard."