Cahill was among a quartet of dropped players including Apo Giannou, Chris Ikonomidis and Ryan McGowan.
It is believed Coach Ange Postecoglou is resting Cahill because of general soreness issues.
Striking duo Jamie McLaren and Nathan Burns were called up to the 23-man squad, along with Josh Risdon and Milos Degenek.
Full Socceroos squad
Nathan BURNS F.C. Tokyo, JAPAN 23 (3)
Milos DEGENEK TSV 1860 Munchen, GERMANY 4 (0)
Adam FEDERICI A.F.C. Bournemouth, ENGLAND 16 (0)
Alex GERSBACH Rosenborg BK, NORWAY 2 (0)