The move by House Democrats is part of a "Day Without a Woman" strike, designed to highlight how crucial women are to the US national workforce.
"I think it's important women in Congress show our solidarity," said Congresswoman Lois Frankel.
Schools in some districts were forced to close after staff walked out.
International Women's Day has grown from a labour movement with its roots in a 1908 protest to a UN-recognised annual event.
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