Dozens of firefighters worked to put out the blaze in the Abbco Tower using at least a dozen fire engines and drones, a local journalist reports.
They are now trying to cool the 48-floor building down.
There were no immediate reports of casualties or of the likely cause of the fire.
Emergency services were called to the scene shortly after 21:00 (17:00 GMT) on Tuesday.
At least five buildings nearby were evacuated as the fire service worked at the scene, the Dubai-based Khaleej Times reports.