Edinho, a former Santos goalkeeper, handed himself in to police on Friday after a Brazilian court ordered his return to prison.
His solicitor said they would take their appeal to the Supreme Court following the latest failed attempt to quash the conviction.
"As he always did, Edson showed up when the arrest warrant was issued," Eugenio Malavasi was quoted as saying by A Tribuna.
In quotes reported by UOL, he said: "We're discussing the sentences and interposing extraordinary appeals.
"I obtained two injunctions at the High Court of Justice and the appeals have been rejected, but there are still appeals with the Supreme Federal Court and Superior Court of Justice."
Edinho was first arrested in 2005 but he has always denied any wrongdoing and appealed against the charges.
He was given a custodial sentence of 33 years in 2014 but that was later reduced to 12 years and 10 months.
The 46-year-old returned to prison to serve his sentence in February but was released in March as he continued his appeal process.
Speaking at the time, he insisted that the case against him is based purely on his association with other suspects.
"The frustration is huge because I'm being accused of money laundering, but I've never done that. There's no proof in this process of that," he said, as quoted by Globo.
"The argument is related to my friendship with the other accused. I have never denied that but I have never laundered money. The argument for conviction is simply friendship. It's difficult to accept and to go through everything I've gone through for more than 15 years.
"I'm ashamed, I regret my carelessness, but I did not commit a crime. I'm strong. I'm going to overcome this."
Three-time World Cup-winner Pele stated his confidence that the case would collapse back in 2006, insisting "there is not a shred of evidence against my son".