Jimmy Hoffmeyer's lawsuit says the constitutional rights of his mixed-race daughter have been violated.
He has pulled his daughter out of the school.
An investigation by the school district concluded in July that while the teacher had broken school policy she had not acted with racial bias.
She was reprimanded but allowed to keep her job at Ganiard Elementary School in Mount Pleasant.
Jimmy Hoffmeyer told the Associated Press last April that his daughter Jurnee had returned home from school one day with much of the hair on one side of her head cut. A classmate had used scissors to cut Jurnee's long curly hair on a school bus, he said.
Two days later, Jurnee returned home from school with the hair on the other side of her head cut - even though she had been taken to a hairdresser who had given her an asymmetrical cut to make the different lengths less obvious.
Mr Hoffmeyer said he thought another child had done it but Jurnee told him it was a teacher. "The teacher cut her hair to even it out," he told the AP.