After a meeting that lasted for seven hours on Monday, both sides agreed to continue efforts to reduce tensions.
But there was no sign of a major breakthrough following the talks.
Around 100,000 Russian troops are believed to be near the border with Ukraine, prompting fears of an incursion and warnings from the West.
The US has said there would be sanctions if Russia were to attack Ukraine.
Russia, meanwhile, has warned the US not to "underestimate the risks" involved in Moscow's confrontation with the West.
"We explained to our colleagues that we have no plans, no intentions to attack Ukraine," Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov told reporters following the meeting.
He said the Russians had told their US counterparts "that all measures for the combat training of troops and forces are carried out within our territory" and that there was "no reason to fear any escalation scenario in this regard".
US Deputy Secretary of State Wendy Sherman described the talks as "frank and forthright" discussions designed to encourage a better understanding of each side's security concerns.