Produced by The New York Times, the film charts the singer's rise to fame and the controversy over her welfare.
Britney's father Jamie Spears has been her conservator for 12 years, due to concerns about her mental health.
"The documentary adds to the critical conversation we are having about women, agency and trauma," wrote NBC's Patricia Grisafi.
"In the tradition of so many 'madwomen in the attic' stories before her, Framing Britney Spears asks what happens when the door is opened to reveal not a frothing hag but hints of a quirky, completely competent human who benefits from meaningful work, time with her children and an Instagram account."
In November, Spears lost a legal attempt to remove her father's control over her estate.
The legal battle has been played out against the backdrop of the #FreeBritney movement, led by fans who believe Spears is being controlled against her will.
Mr Spears has defended his role, telling CNN he is "protecting" his daughter from "those with self-serving interests and those who seek to harm her".
The documentary examines not only the complex history behind the long-running conservatorship, but also the treatment of Spears as she grew up in the spotlight.
Many fans welcomed the documentary as further evidence of how the singer has been treated over the years, while some celebrities spoke out in support.
Actresses Sarah Jessica Parker and Bette Midler posted the #FreeBritney slogan, and Miley Cyrus used a pre-Super Bowl performance to tell the audience: "We love Britney!"