Lamar, 30, is the first rapper to win the prestigious award. The Pulitzer follows the five Grammy awards won by Lamar in January for the album.
Previous Pulitzer music winners include jazz musicians Wynton Marsalis and Ornette Coleman.
Rap is now officially the biggest music genre in the United States after surpassing rock in 2017.
Lamar's fusion of jazz, poetry and blues with social themes and love songs has made him one of the most innovative rappers of his generation.