Videos on social media show passengers using emergency exit slides to escape the burning Aeroflot aircraft.
Two children and a flight attendant were among the dead, Russian media reports.
One witness though said it was a "miracle" anyone escaped the jet, which was reportedly carrying 78 passengers.
It remains unclear what caused the large blaze and emergency landing.
The aircraft is a Sukhoi Superjet-100, and was scheduled to depart at 17:50 local time (14:50 GMT) for the city of Murmansk.