The plaque marks where Marley lived with his band the Wailers in 1977 at 42 Oakley Street, in Chelsea.
It comes after a drive to uncover more addresses of ethnic minority figures.
Marley and the Wailers' famous Exodus album included hits such as Jamming, Three Little Birds and One Love.
The plaque had been stuck in the planning process because Marley was not registered in phone directories or electoral registers.
Marley also gave a different address during an arrest for cannabis possession in 1977 to prevent the police from searching the house in Oakley Street for drugs.
English Heritage confirmed the house was the band's headquarters and Marley's primary address from contemporary reports.
In 2015 English Heritage, which manages more than 400 historic buildings and cultural sites across the country, established a working group to reinvestigate the addresses of noted ethnic minority figures.
Out of more than 900 blue plaques across London, only 4% are dedicated to black and Asian individuals.